Read

Parsing of Strings, producing values. Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey:
  • If the constructor is defined to be an infix operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only infix applications of the constructor (not the prefix form).
  • Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be.
  • If the constructor is defined using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the record-syntax form, and furthermore, the fields must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
  • The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
For example, given the declarations
infixr 5 :^:
data Tree a =  Leaf a  |  Tree a :^: Tree a
the derived instance of Read in Haskell 2010 is equivalent to
instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where

readsPrec d r =  readParen (d > app_prec)
(\r -> [(Leaf m,t) |
("Leaf",s) <- lex r,
(m,t) <- readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r

++ readParen (d > up_prec)
(\r -> [(u:^:v,w) |
(u,s) <- readsPrec (up_prec+1) r,
(":^:",t) <- lex s,
(v,w) <- readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r

where app_prec = 10
up_prec = 5
Note that right-associativity of :^: is unused. The derived instance in GHC is equivalent to
instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where

readPrec = parens $ (prec app_prec $ do
Ident "Leaf" <- lexP
m <- step readPrec
return (Leaf m))

+++ (prec up_prec $ do
u <- step readPrec
Symbol ":^:" <- lexP
v <- step readPrec
return (u :^: v))

where app_prec = 10
up_prec = 5

readListPrec = readListPrecDefault
Why do both readsPrec and readPrec exist, and why does GHC opt to implement readPrec in derived Read instances instead of readsPrec? The reason is that readsPrec is based on the ReadS type, and although ReadS is mentioned in the Haskell 2010 Report, it is not a very efficient parser data structure. readPrec, on the other hand, is based on a much more efficient ReadPrec datatype (a.k.a "new-style parsers"), but its definition relies on the use of the RankNTypes language extension. Therefore, readPrec (and its cousin, readListPrec) are marked as GHC-only. Nevertheless, it is recommended to use readPrec instead of readsPrec whenever possible for the efficiency improvements it brings. As mentioned above, derived Read instances in GHC will implement readPrec instead of readsPrec. The default implementations of readsPrec (and its cousin, readList) will simply use readPrec under the hood. If you are writing a Read instance by hand, it is recommended to write it like so:
instance Read T where
readPrec     = ...
readListPrec = readListPrecDefault
Converting strings to values. The Text.Read library is the canonical library to import for Read-class facilities. For GHC only, it offers an extended and much improved Read class, which constitutes a proposed alternative to the Haskell 2010 Read. In particular, writing parsers is easier, and the parsers are much more efficient.
The Read class and instances for basic data types.
Common internal functions for reading textual data.
Functions used frequently when reading textual data.
Functions used frequently when reading textual data.
TextShow instance for Lexeme (and Number, if using a recent-enough version of base). Since: 2
Convert a human readable string to a physical value.
Parsing of Strings, producing values. Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey:
  • If the constructor is defined to be an infix operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only infix applications of the constructor (not the prefix form).
  • Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be.
  • If the constructor is defined using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the record-syntax form, and furthermore, the fields must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
  • The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
For example, given the declarations
infixr 5 :^:
data Tree a =  Leaf a  |  Tree a :^: Tree a
the derived instance of Read in Haskell 2010 is equivalent to
instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where

readsPrec d r =  readParen (d > app_prec)
(\r -> [(Leaf m,t) |
("Leaf",s) <- lex r,
(m,t) <- readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r

++ readParen (d > up_prec)
(\r -> [(u:^:v,w) |
(u,s) <- readsPrec (up_prec+1) r,
(":^:",t) <- lex s,
(v,w) <- readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r

where app_prec = 10
up_prec = 5
Note that right-associativity of :^: is unused. The derived instance in GHC is equivalent to
instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where

readPrec = parens $ (prec app_prec $ do
Ident "Leaf" <- lexP
m <- step readPrec
return (Leaf m))

+++ (prec up_prec $ do
u <- step readPrec
Symbol ":^:" <- lexP
v <- step readPrec
return (u :^: v))

where app_prec = 10
up_prec = 5

readListPrec = readListPrecDefault
This is the entry point to hledger's reading system, which can read Journals from various data formats. Use this module if you want to parse journal data or read journal files. Generally it should not be necessary to import modules below this one.
Tools for reading values in a CBOR-encoded format back into ordinary values.
Generic implementation of Read

Warning

This is an internal module: it is not subject to any versioning policy, breaking changes can happen at any time. If something here seems useful, please report it or create a pull request to export it from an external module.